By Katy Gardner, David Lewis
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Extra resources for Anthropology and Development: Challenges for the Twenty-First Century
By the 1980s, the rise of Japan as an economic powerhouse, the emergence of ‘Asian tiger’ economies, and the global power of oil-rich countries in the Middle East made the picture more complicated. As we note above, when the Cold War ended in 1989 the language that had set out a distinction between the ‘First’ World (the West), the ‘Second’ World (the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics [USSR], China and the Eastern bloc) and the ‘Third’ World (the rest) no longer fitted, even if large areas of Africa, Asia and Latin America remained impoverished.
As we shall see, this did not happen. Western aid and development became more heavily infused with the managerialist ideology that has gained ground across many of the traditional donor countries and the global context in which international aid has traditionally operated is in the process of undergoing dramatic change. Development was originally presented in terms of the creation of economic growth and the transfer of new technology that would bring material benefits through modernisation. Such thinking remains in the mainstream, continuing today in the priorities of international agencies.
The aim was primarily to stimulate markets in the colonies, thus boosting the economy at home (Mosley, 1987: 21). Despite these initial beginnings, the real start of the main processes of aid transfer is usually taken to be the end of the Second World War, when the major multilateral agencies were established. The IMF and the IBRD (later to become the World Bank) were set up during the Bretton Woods Conference in 1944, while the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) was created as a branch of the United Nations in 1945.
Anthropology and Development: Challenges for the Twenty-First Century by Katy Gardner, David Lewis