By Paul R. Gray
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Extra resources for Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits
9. An increase in VCEcauses an increase in the collector depletion-layer width and consequent reduction of base width. Since an increase AVcE in VCEcauses a decrease AIB in Ie, this effect can be modeled by inclusion of a resistor r, from collector to base of the model of Fig. 18. If VBEis assumed held constant, the value of this resistor can be determined as follows. 18 Basic bipolar transistor small-signal equivalent circuit. 116) to give This is a lower limit for r,. In practice, IB1 is typically less than 10 percent of IB [component IB2 from (1.
1 7 ~with bias voltages V B E and Vcc applied as shown. These produce a quiescent collector current, Ic, and a quiescent base current, IB, and the device is in theforward-active region. A small-signal input voltage vi is applied in series with V B E and produces a small variation in base current ib and a small variation in collector current i,. Total values of base and collector currents are Ib and I,, respectively, and thus Ib = ( I B ib)and I, = ( I c + i,). The carrier concentrations in the base of the transistor corresponding to the situation in Fig.
However, the influence of the Early effect is often dominant in smallsignal calculations for high-gain circuits and this point will be considered later. ) 7: Is 1 - exp - This is a common means of representing the device output characteristics for computer simulation. 3 Saturation and Inverse-Active Regions Saturation is a region of device operation that is usually avoided in analog circuits because the transistor gain is very low in this region. Saturation is much more commonly encountered in digital circuits, where it provides a well-specified output voltage that represents a logic state.
Analysis and Design of Analog Integrated Circuits by Paul R. Gray