By Walter Geller, Martin Schultze, Bob Kleinmann, Christian Wolkersdorfer
This monograph offers a global point of view on pit lakes in post-mining landscapes, together with the matter of geogenic acidification. a lot has been discovered over the past decade via learn and useful adventure on easy methods to mitigate or remediate the environmental difficulties of acidic pit lakes. within the first a part of the booklet, common medical concerns are offered in 21 contributions from the fields of geo-environmental technological know-how, water chemistry, lake physics, lake modeling, and at the bizarre organic beneficial properties that take place within the severe habitats of acidic pit lakes. one other bankruptcy offers an outline of equipment at present used to remediate acidic pit lakes and deal with outflowing acidic water. the second one a part of the publication is a suite of nearby surveys of pit lake difficulties from 3 ecu nations and Australia, and case experiences of varied person consultant lakes. a last case examine offers an cutting edge method of assessing the industrial price of recent pit lakes and balancing the prices and merits, a invaluable instrument for choice makers.
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Extra info for Acidic Pit Lakes: The Legacy of Coal and Metal Surface Mines
More details can be found in Gammons et al. (2009), Pellicori et al. (2005), and in a special issue on the topic in Mine Water and the Environment (Kleinmann 2006). Further case studies on the interaction of groundwater and pit lakes in Germany exist, such as: Bozau and Strauch (2002), Trettin et al. (2007), and Werner et al. (2001, 2008). 1 Physical Properties of Acidic Pit Lakes Bertram Boehrer Mine water in pit lakes can have a pH of 3 or even less. In some cases, we find gradients of pH within the same lake extending from acidic to neutral.
As the density gradient is the crucial quantity to overcome, transport coefficients have been correlated with the potential density gradient in the form of a stability frequency N2 ¼ À g oq q oz ð3:6Þ for an empirical correlation of transport coefficients under given stratification conditions (Heinz et al. 1990; von Rohden and Ilmberger 2001). 34 3 Limnology of Pit Lakes In contrast, during circulation periods, vertical transport happens at a fast rate. Oxygen is supplied to deeper layers of the lake and dissolved substances, which have accumulated in the deep waters during the stratification period, are redistributed through the lake.
2 0 −5 10 20 Temperature [°C] 30 0 10 20 30 Temperature [°C] Fig. 3 Conductivity (left panel) and density (right panel) of a mixolimnion sample and a monimolimnion sample from Waldsee, Germany versus temperature (from Boehrer et al. 2009a, with permission of American Geophysical Union) Nowadays, the pure water reference qW can be taken from Kell (1975) or Tanaka et al. (2001). The density difference Dq can be a constant or a polynomial in temperature DqðTÞ. g. Jellison et al. 1999). If a lake consists of two layers that differ in their chemical composition, as in meromictic lakes (see below), the gradient can be reflected in the following approach: starting from Eq.
Acidic Pit Lakes: The Legacy of Coal and Metal Surface Mines by Walter Geller, Martin Schultze, Bob Kleinmann, Christian Wolkersdorfer