By Kerson Huang
This attention-grabbing booklet presents the actual and mathematical historical past for a idea describing the universe as a quantum superfluid, and the way darkish strength and darkish topic come up. offering a unique concept spanning many various fields in physics, the most important ideas in every one box are introduced.The reader is barely anticipated to understand the rudiments of condensed subject physics, quantum box conception and common relativity to discover this interesting new version of darkish topic and darkish strength as points of a cosmic superfluid.
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Do you know:What may possibly ensue in case you fall right into a black gap? That the Universe doesn't have an aspect? That the explanation it will get darkish at evening is evidence of the massive Bang? That cosmic debris time-travel during the surroundings defying loss of life? That our previous, current and destiny may well all coexist "out there"?
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In its monetary yr 2002 funds precis rfile the Bush management expressed concern-based partly at the findings and conclusions of 2 nationwide learn Council studies-about contemporary developments within the federal investment of astronomy and astrophysics study. The President's finances blueprint urged that now's the time to deal with those matters and directed the nationwide technological know-how starting place (NSF) and the nationwide Aeronautics and area management (NASA) to set up a blue ribbon panel to (1) verify the organizational effectiveness of the federal examine firm in astronomy and astrophysics, (2) give some thought to the professionals and cons of moving NSF's astronomy duties to NASA, and (3) recommend substitute suggestions for addressing concerns within the administration and association of astronomical and astrophysical examine. NASA and NSF requested the nationwide study Council to hold out the swift overview asked through the President. This document, concentrating on the jobs of NSF and NASA, offers the result of that evaluation.
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Additional resources for A Superfluid Universe
The lower panel shows actual photographs of a vortex-reconnection event in superﬂuid helium . 4(a) shows the conﬁgurations of two vortex lines before and after their reconnection, with a cusp on each of the subsequent lines. Since the local velocity of a vortex line is inversely proportional to the local radius of curvature, the near-zero radii of the cusps make them rapidly spring away from each other, creating two jets of energy in the background superﬂuid. This is a mechanism that can convert potential energy into kinetic energy in a short time.
In any event, the high-momentum end of the theory does not accurately represent the physics that it is meant to model. The cutoff Λ0 marks the momentum scale at which the field theory is expected to fail to represent the physics, and is usually much higher than the scale we are working with. We therefore try to lower it to an effective cutoff Λ to suit our applications. This procedure is known as renormalization, in which the coupling constants in the Lagrangian change to compensate for the change in cutoff, so as to preserve the identity of the theory .
Then, masses generated from the Higgs mechanism will depend on spacetime. We often refer to φ( x ) as the Higgs field. 2 The vorticon We have seen in Chapter 1 that a projectile shot into superfluid helium can create a vortex ring and be trapped by it, forming a new structure (see Fig. 8). In a similar manner, an energetic Z can tear through the vacuum Higgs field, create a vortex ring in the Higgs field, and be trapped by it, as illustrated in Fig. 1. The Z is massive outside of the vortex ring, but massless inside, like a photon confined to a donut-shaped waveguide.
A Superfluid Universe by Kerson Huang