New PDF release: A Superfluid Universe

By Kerson Huang

ISBN-10: 9813148454

ISBN-13: 9789813148451

This attention-grabbing booklet presents the actual and mathematical historical past for a idea describing the universe as a quantum superfluid, and the way darkish strength and darkish topic come up. offering a unique concept spanning many various fields in physics, the most important ideas in every one box are introduced.The reader is barely anticipated to understand the rudiments of condensed subject physics, quantum box conception and common relativity to discover this interesting new version of darkish topic and darkish strength as points of a cosmic superfluid.

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The lower panel shows actual photographs of a vortex-reconnection event in superfluid helium [3]. 4(a) shows the configurations of two vortex lines before and after their reconnection, with a cusp on each of the subsequent lines. Since the local velocity of a vortex line is inversely proportional to the local radius of curvature, the near-zero radii of the cusps make them rapidly spring away from each other, creating two jets of energy in the background superfluid. This is a mechanism that can convert potential energy into kinetic energy in a short time.

In any event, the high-momentum end of the theory does not accurately represent the physics that it is meant to model. The cutoff Λ0 marks the momentum scale at which the field theory is expected to fail to represent the physics, and is usually much higher than the scale we are working with. We therefore try to lower it to an effective cutoff Λ to suit our applications. This procedure is known as renormalization, in which the coupling constants in the Lagrangian change to compensate for the change in cutoff, so as to preserve the identity of the theory [1].

Then, masses generated from the Higgs mechanism will depend on spacetime. We often refer to φ( x ) as the Higgs field. 2 The vorticon We have seen in Chapter 1 that a projectile shot into superfluid helium can create a vortex ring and be trapped by it, forming a new structure (see Fig. 8). In a similar manner, an energetic Z can tear through the vacuum Higgs field, create a vortex ring in the Higgs field, and be trapped by it, as illustrated in Fig. 1. The Z is massive outside of the vortex ring, but massless inside, like a photon confined to a donut-shaped waveguide.

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A Superfluid Universe by Kerson Huang

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