By Jorgen Randers, G. Bologna
1972: su incarico del membership di Roma, un gruppo di studiosi dell’MIT pubblica I Limiti dello sviluppo, che prefigura gli effetti della crescita della popolazione, dei consumi e dell’inquinamento su un pianeta fisicamente limitato. Dopo decenni di critiche feroci, ormai si ammette che le conclusioni di quello studio erano corrette.
2012: Jorgen Randers, uno dei coautori di I limiti dello sviluppo, fa il punto su quanto è successo e prova a delineare il futuro globale da qui al 2052. Vivremo sempre più nelle città, saremo più connessi e creativi, e dovremo trovare nuovi modi in step with gestire le tensioni dovute alle diseguaglianze crescenti. Probabilmente l. a. popolazione non crescerà quanto previsto, con una riduzione degli impatti sulla biosfera, ma le rinnovabili non riusciranno a rimpiazzare i combustibili fossili in pace in line with eliminare del tutto los angeles possibilità di un riscaldamento climatico catastrofico... Nessun settore è escluso, e Randers ci mette a disposizione una guida in line with interpretare e gestire le turbolenze dei prossimi quarant’anni.
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Additional resources for 2052: scenari globali per i prossimi quarant’anni
Instead, it is simply assumed that an ever expanding stock of human-made capital corresponds to a logical improvement in human well-being and that, by implication, growth is always desirable. Thus, as far as Weisskopf is concerned, it is the conﬂation of intermediate ends and the ultimate end that has permitted “rational means to justify irrational and, in many instances, bad ends” (Weisskopf, 1971, page 92). According to Horkheimer (1947), the conﬂation of intermediate ends and the ultimate end began as the philosophers of the Enlightenment, following the Reformation of the sixteenth century, attacked religion in the name of reason.
More on this will be discussed in later chapters. Between the ultimate means and the ultimate end of the ends-means spectrum are the two intermediate categories. Both constitute ends with respect to a lower order category and means with respect to a higher order category of the spectrum. For instance, a hierarchy of intermediate ends exists below the ultimate end in recognition of the fact that a. A dogmatic belief in objective value is required to rank human needs and wants from most to least important.
Consider, therefore, the consequences of addressing the standard economic problem in isolation. Because it deals exclusively with how well intermediate means serve the hierarchy of intermediate ends, it is but one of many subproblems subsumed by the larger ecological economic problem. To focus solely on the standard economic problem and resolve it at the expense of other subproblems means, inevitably, that the ecological economic problem will go unresolved. Clearly, the resolution of the standard economic problem is a necessary but insufﬁcient condition for achieving SD.
2052: scenari globali per i prossimi quarant’anni by Jorgen Randers, G. Bologna